“The great tragedy of Science - the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact. ” — T.H. Huxley

Andrew Kraemer

Adjunct Assistant Professor
Evolutionary Ecology, Island Biogeography, and Conservation Biology

Ph.D. – Iowa State University, 2014
B.A. – University of St. Thomas, 2009

Department of Biology
Creighton University
2500 California Plaza
Omaha, NE 68178-0103
Office: Rigge Science 412
Phone: 402-280-3513

Additional website: https://andrewkraemerlab.wordpress.com/

Courses Offered

Research Interests

The threat of predation has spurred the evolution of myriad anti-predator strategies in animals, many of which involve coloration. Two commonly occurring but fundamentally different strategies are camouflage and the advertisement of secondary defenses, such as toxins (this strategy is called aposematism). The central theme of my research on this topic is studying how anti-predator strategies using coloration can in some cases lead to incredible morphological diversity (e.g. camouflage), while in other situations unrelated species converge on a single morphology (e.g. mimicry of aposematic species). This research is focused on two groups of species, endemic land snails of the Pacific and plethodontid salamanders of Appalachia.

Another set of selective factors driving evolution in the modern world are human-induced. In some communities habitat degradation has led to the loss of species that are sensitive to environmental changes, while in other communities species are quickly adapting to this new world. My research on this topic follows species through these environmental changes to identify what attributes (e.g. ecology, morphology, or evolutionary history) are differentially lost as a result of human actions, and which attributes can be used to prioritize conservation efforts. This research is focused on Pacific land snails and in the near future I hope to also study the herpetological community of the Omaha metro area.

Scholarly Works


Kraemer, A.C. and C.E. Parent. Predictable rise and fall of biological diversity on islands. Under review.

Kraemer, A.C. and C.E. Parent. Tradeoffs direct the evolution of coloration in Galapagos land snails. In preparation.

Sherratt, E., A. Alejandrino, A.C. Kraemer, J.M. Serb, and D.C. Adams. 2016. Trends in the sand: directional evolution in the shell shape of recessing scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae). Evolution. 70:2061-2073.

Kraemer, A.C., J.M. Serb, and D.C. Adams. 2016. Both novelty and conspicuousness influence selection by mammalian predators on the colour pattern of Plethodon cinereus (Urodela: Plethodontidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 118:889-900.

Kraemer, A.C., J.M. Serb, and D.C. Adams. 2015. Model toxin level does not directly influence the evolution of mimicry in the salamander Plethodon cinereus. Evolutionary Ecology 29:511-523.

Kraemer, A.C., J.M. Serb, and D.C. Adams. 2015. Batesian mimics influence the evolution of conspicuousness in an aposematic salamander. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28:1016-1023. [cover illustration]

Kraemer, A.C. and D.C. Adams. 2014. Predator perception of Batesian mimicry and conspicuousness in a salamander. Evolution 68: 1197-1206.

Kraemer, A.C., J. Kissner, and D.C. Adams. 2012. Morphological color-change in the red- backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) while kept in captivity. Copeia 2012:748-755.